Factors of population movement towards Dhaka

An Empirical Study


  • Naznin Islam Shah Professor, Department of Public Administration, Dhaka University
  • Md. Azimul Ehsan Lecturer, Department of Public Administration, Jagannath University, Dhaka
  • Bushra Khanam Senior Executive (Research, Development & Planning). Cosmo School and College.


Internal, migration, rural, urban, factor, Dhaka, economic


Internal Migration is a very common phenomenon in Bangladesh. The pressure of people is
increasing day by day in urban areas, especially in Dhaka city. It is predicted that Dhaka will
be more populous than Mexico City, Beijing or Shanghai by 2021. If population pressures
cannot be controlled now, then the unplanned city may face serious threat in future.
Overcrowding and lack of planning in Dhaka city is creating traffic jam, land grabbing,
imbalance in climate, pollution and never ending demands for energy and water. Though
migration is necessary but it is vital to control when it impedes the development of a city.
Nonetheless, before any policy measures are adopted to control this increasing trend of
migration, it is important to know ground realities behind such internal movements. This
study has been conducted, adopting both quantitative and qualitative social research tools, to
know the different under lying factors which induce the rural people to migrate in Dhaka city.
The findings suggest such migration is taking place owing to both push and pull factors.
However, the economic and socio-cultural factors have been stronger reasons of migration
than the pull/motivating forces. Although the process of migration has improved the condition
of few migrants, most of them still suffer from poverty and low standard of living. In order
to reduce the wave of increasing migration in Dhaka, government needs to adopt regional
development policy with the availability of social and cultural facilities of city standard.
Moreover, the big industries and garment factories should be shifted away from Dhaka which
will not only reduce the pressure on the city but also ease the workers livelihood.